Héctor Herranz Muñoz
E. mail: email@example.com
Cancer develops in a complex mutational landscape. Cancer cells accumulate ‘driver mutations’ that are causally linked to disease, and ‘passenger mutations’ that, although present, have limited impact on disease. In recent years, factors encoded by cancer genes have become targets for successful anticancer drug development. Although cancer genome sequence data provide an unparalleled depth of information about the mutations present in different cancer genomes, identification of genetic alterations contributing to tumorigenesis and metastasis calls for the use of simple genetic model systems.
Tumors exhibit another dimension of complexity: the tumor microenvironment. Carcinomas are composed by different cell types: the neoplastic epithelial compartment, and the tumor stroma that comprises associated mesenchymal cells and Extracellular matrix. Interaction of cancer cells with the tumor stroma can modify the local microenvironment to promote disease progression. Therefore, understanding how tumor cells interact with the stromal environment will be important for understanding disease progression.
We are using Drosophila melanogaster as a tumor model system.
We have engineered Drosophila strains that activate different cancer-driver mutations. These flies allow, with a single genetic cross, the introduction of new mutations to identify genes that, when combined with driver mutations, lead to tumor formation and metastasis.
Top - Oncogenic cooperation between the oncogene EGFR and the gene psq.
Bottom - GFP-labeled metastasis infiltrating other organs as the malpighian tubules or the gut.
We have developed a Drosophila model to dissect the crosstalk between tumor cells and surrounding normal cells, in tumors of epithelial origin. In this model, interaction between the two cell populations is required for tumor growth, neoplastic transformation of the epithelium, and metastasis. Our aim is to understand the molecular crosstalk between these cell populations driving tumor and metastasis formation.
Top - Drosophila tumors of epithelial origin composed by a mix of epithelial transformed cells (GFP+), and wild type mesenchymal cells (GFP-) corresponding to the tumor stroma.
Bottom - Epithelial mutant compartment (GFP+) expresses TGF-β (dpp), whereas the tumor stroma (GFP-) activates TGF-β pathway (pMAD).
Herranz H*, Hong X*, Hung NT, Voorhoeve PM and Cohen SM. Oncogenic cooperation between SOCS family proteins and EGFR identified using a Drosophila epithelial transformation model. Genes Dev, 2012 Jul 15; 26: 1602-1611 *These authors contributed equally to this work.
Herranz H, Hong X and Cohen SM. Mutual Repression by Bantam miRNA and Capicua Links the EGFR/MAPK and Hippo Pathways in Growth Control. Current Biology, 22, 1–7, April 24, 2012
Herranz H and Cohen SM. MicroRNAs and gene regulatory networks: managing the impact of noise in biological systems. Genes Dev, 2010 Jul 1;24(13):1339-44
Herranz H, Hong X, Pérez L, Ferreira A, Olivieri D, Cohen SM and Milán M. The miRNA machinery targets Mei-P26 and regulates Myc protein levels in the Drosophila wing. EMBO J, 2010 May 19;29(10)